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Importance of Role of Phanerogamic Parasites Diseases
The flowering plants, Phanerogams also parasitize the crop plants in addition to the microorganisms. They mostly belong to Loranthaceae, Convolvulaceae, Scrophulariaceae, Orabanchaceae, Lauraceae, Santalaceae and Balauophoraceae. Based on the habit and attachment of the parasite with the host, they are commonly grouped as stem parasite and root parasite. They are again divided into total or semi parasite depending upon their mode of parasitism.
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Farm Machinery for Conservation Agriculture
Conservation agriculture (CA) permits management of soils for agricultural production without excessively disturbing the soil, while protecting it from the processes that contribute to degradation of erosion, compaction, aggregate breakdown, loss in organic matter, leaching of nutrients etc. CA is a way to achieve goals of enhanced productivity and profitability while protecting natural resources and environment, an example of a win situation. In the conventional system involving intensive tillage, there is a gradual decline in soil organic matter through accelerated oxidation and burning of crop residues causing pollution, green house gases emission and loss of valuable plant nutrients. When the crop residues are retained on soil surface in combination with no tillage, it initiates processes that lead to improved soil quality and overall resource enhancement. Benefits of CA have been demonstrated through its large-scale adoption in many socioeconomic and agro-ecological situations in different countries the over world.
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2AP - A Potent Aroma Molecule in Rice
Rice is the most important staple food for a large part of the world’s human population. Rice varieties with aroma quality, known as aromatic or fragrant rice, have earned a reputation and wide popularity. Aromatic rice constitutes a small but special group of rice which are considered best in quality. Aromatic rice is of different types: Short grain, medium grain and long grain aromatic rice. Majority of the Indian indigenous aromatic rice are small and medium-grained.
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Signal Perception and Transduction in Plant Defense Responses
Plants are sessile organisms and are not able to move away from adverse environmental conditions and must response to an array of environmental and developmental cues. They heavily rely on high sensitivity detection and adaptation mechanisms to environmental perturbations. At the same time plants do not have immune system, but possess preformed and inducible defense resistance. These include programmed cell death, tissue reinforcement at the infection site, and production of anti-microbial metabolites. Activation of ‘local’ responses establishes secondary immunity throughout the plant (SAR), which is long lasting and effective against a broad spectrum of pathogens.
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Biocontrol Agents and Mechanism Involved in Biological Control
A biological agent that reduces the number or disease producing activities of the pathogen is called as antagonist or biocontrol agent. The important biocontrol agents used in plant disease management includes fungi, bacteria etc. Among them, fungal and bacterial antagonists especially species of Trichoderma, Gliocladium, Pseudomonas and Bacillus are most widely used against plant diseases. They act on the pathogen through one or more of the following mechanisms like competition, parasitism, antibiosis, lysis, etc.
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Synthetic Biology: A New Niche Area of Biology
It briefly introduces the topic synthetic biology with history of development with reference to structural as well as functional perspectives. DNA synthesis from oligonucleotides to whole genome has been traced at structural perspective. Ribozyme switches and SynNotch communication systems have been described from functional perspective.
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Use of Tractor Operated Fertilizer Applicator in Wheat Crops
The high fertilizer rate and labor requirement are common problems to traditional application of fertilizer. Fertilizer applicator was testing for wheat crop (Triticum aestivum) planted on bed cultivation system. Study included suitable measurement techniques for recording various field performances, parameters related to evaluation of machine. The machine was calibrated in the laboratory testing for different rate of fertilizer application and determination of coefficient of variation. The tractor operated fertilizer applicator resulted as compared to broadcast and foliar application. The field tests of machine were conducted on the wheat crop planted on bed.
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Suppression of Soil Borne Pathogens through Soil Solarization
It is an environmentally friendly method of using solar energy for controlling soil- borne plant pathogens by covering the soil with transparent plastics so that sun rays will increase the soil temperature to levels that kills the pathogen.
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Bdellovibrio used as a Biocontrol Agent
A bacterium that is clearly a living organism, as opposed to viruses and phages and is smaller than the prey, in contrast with protists. Bdellovibrio is a genus of Gram negative bacteria with the ability to parasitize and kill other Gram negative bacteria
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Genetics of Submergence Tolerance in Rice
Flooding, resulting in soil waterlogging and in many situations even complete submergence of plants, is an important abiotic stress in many regions worldwide. The number of floods has increased in recent decades and the severity of floods is expected to increase further in many regions of the world. Flooding reduces agricultural production, and floods shape many natural plant communities (e.g. floodplains, wetlands, salt marshes). Rainfed lowland and deep-water rice together account for approximately 33% of global rice farmlands (IRRI Social Statistics Database). Distribution of rice grown in upland, irrigated, rainfed lowland, and deep-water environments. Oftentimes, transient submergence is repeated or followed by a period of stagnant partial flooding. When partially or completely submerged, most rice varieties display a moderate capacity to elongate leaves and the portion of stems that are trapped underwater. This elongation growth leads to a spindly plant that easily lodges when floodwaters recede.
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Cloning Vectors: Useful Tool for Developing Agricultural Transgenic Crops
A cloning vector may be a small piece of DNA, taken from a micro-organism or from the cells of eukaryotes, that may be stably maintained in an organism, and into that a foreign deoxyribonucleic acid fragment is inserted for generating multiple copies of Dna. The vector thus contains features that allow the convenient insertion or removal of a deoxyribonucleic acid fragment to or from cloning vector, with a restriction endonuclease that cuts the deoxyribonucleic acid. Dna segments so generated contain either flush or protruding ends, and vector and foreign dna with compatible ends will then be joined together by ligation. When a deoxyribonucleic acid fragment has been cloned into a cloning vector, it should be further sub cloned into another vector designed for a specific use.
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Abiotic Stress Signal Transduction Pathways in Plants
Stress is defined as mechanical force per unit area applied to an object. As plants are sessile, it is difficult to measure the exact force exerted by stresses and therefore in biological terms it is difficult to define stress. A biological condition, which may be stress for one plant may be optimum for another plant. The most practical definition of a biological stress is an adverse force or a condition, which inhibits the normal functioning and well being of a biological system such as plants.
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Grafting in Solanaceous Vegetable
Vegetable grafting is a relatively recent advancement made in India. It is a unique technique for mitigating the production problems imposed by abiotic and biotic stresses in vegetable production and can be referred as uniting of two living plant parts so that they grow as a single plant. The use of grafted vegetables is associated with enhanced resistance to biotic and abiotic stress. It can also increase yields without the presence of stress. But this technique is still in nursery stage in north eastern hill region of India. Identification of compatible disease resistant rootstocks with tolerance to abiotic stresses is the basic requirement for continued success of grafting in the region. This technique can be popularized amongst the farmers for increasing the productivity of major solanaceous vegetables grown in the region
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Winged Bean in Organic Farming System: A Boon for Small farmers
In the recent years increasing emphasis has been given on organic farming system due to environmental degradation, high awareness of the health hazards caused by the consumption of contaminated food products etc. Diversification and adoption of underutilized vegetable crops in present cropping system can be an aid to success of organic farming system. Psophocarpus tetragonolobus, popularly known as Winged bean or Goa bean is a potential tropical underutilized legume crop. The present article will provide an insight into the nutritional value and cultural practices for the cultivation of this crop. The information generated from this article will pave the ways for prospecting this underutilized legume for its potential in organic farming system and also in delivering nutritional education about the crop to the farming community.
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Importance and Mechanism of PGPR
The bacteria causes indirect plant growth promotion or biological control. It is also used for sustainable agriculture, increase crop production and suppression of plant pathogens. PGPRs (plant growth promoting rhizobacteria) are associated with plants roots and increase immunity of plants against pathogens attack.
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Importance of Solar Energy in Agriculture
Solar energy becomes the most promising renewable energy source that can replace the conventional source of energy. Solar energy can provide both thermal and electrical energy. The application of solar energy in agricultural sector includes drying, cooking, rural electrification, threshing, water pumping etc. Proper utilization of renewable energy such as solar energy can provide sustainable development.
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Molecular Mapping and Mapping Populations
Mapping Populations viz., F2, backcross and recombinant inbreds are the three primary kinds of mapping populations mostly used populations for molecular mapping. An F2 population is developed by autogamy (or intermating for cross pollinated species) among F1 individuals. These F1 individuals are developed by crossing two parents that show important polymorphism for which ever form of loci you're reaching to score. Backcross populations are developed by crossing the F1 with one among the two parents used in the initial cross.
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Plant Protection Equipment - Sprayer
In India most of the agricultural operations are using manually/battery operated agricultural equipments. Sprayers are used for plant protection to control pest, weeds, insects, and disease in field crops, (Horticulture Crops) fruits and vegetables etc. Various types of sprayers are available in market for application of liquid chemicals on plants. Most of them are manually operated and chemical used for various operation are very costly and harmful for human being. Awareness about proper operation, adjustment and repair of these equipment and human protection is necessary for safety and pollution control
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Valuation of Energy and Protein Requirements for Horses
Horse should be fed according to its energy and protein requirements which changes at different stages of life
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Plant DNA Cloning and its Applications in Agriculture
Gene cloning refers to the assembly of an oversized population of a DNA fragment in pure form. Gene cloning involves the formation of a DNA and its introduction into an acceptable host, resembling E. coli or Bacillus subtilis. The host used ought to be without plasmids.

Author Spotlight

( Profiles with pictures only, randomly selected)

Author Photo Bharatpur, Rajasthsan, India
I am a student of Ph.D. in Genetics and Plant Breeding, College of Agriculture, JAU, Junagadh, Gujarat, India
Author Photo Bhuj, Gujarat, India
Scientist, working in ICAR-CAZRI and interest areas are Tissue culture, underutilized plant genetic resources conservation and utilization
Author Photo Chirawa, Rajasthan
A Budding Biotechnologist from India. I'm looking forward to explore research work in the field of genetics & bioinformatics. My career is aimed at pursuing research. For reference, Researcher ID- J-4200-2012
Author Photo New Delhi, India
Scientist at National Research Centre on Plant Biotechnology, IARI, Pusa Campus, New Delhi. My area of research is 'Biotic and Abiotic Stress Management Through Genomics Approaches'.
Author Photo New York, USA
Lisa completed her coursework in Human, Biology, Health, & Society at Cornell University in 2011. She received her Bachelor of Science with honors. Lisa will be attending Brown University's Master of Public Public program.
Author Photo Anand, Gujarat, India
I am pursuing Ph.D. in the Plant Molecular Biology & Biotechnology and also working as Junior Research Fellow at Anand Agricultural University, Anand.
Author Photo Varanasi, Uttar pradesh, India
Doctoral research scholar in BHU, varanasi.I got ICAR-SRF fellwship for my Research work. I am working on effect on nanoparticlesin heavymetal stress in crop plants.
Author Photo New Delhi, Delhi

Author Photo New Delhi, Delhi, India
Researcher at Microbial Biotechnology and Genomics at CSIR-IGIB, Delhi.

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Commented by: Junaid M Wani - 2018-05-18
Wow.Thankyou soo much for this.It was very helpful for me.The answer has been written in a very ease form.Thankyou soo much..God Bless You
Commented by: Parmila - 2018-05-17
Thank you
Commented by: Urooj - 2018-05-16
this article is quite helpful (y) all the questions that i had explained in a single article.rn
Commented by: Rishab chandra - 2018-05-02
Well Done sir .. It was very thoroughly and easily explained..
Commented by: Somit Singh - 2018-05-02
Great suryavashi its realky helpful

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