Hybrids of Papaya in India
Authors: Jai Prakash, A.K. Goswami and Kanhaiya Singh
Division of Fruits and Horticultural Technology
ICAR-Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi-12
Correponding author email: singhjai2001@rediffmail.com

Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is one of the most important fruit cultivated throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The ripe fresh fruit of papaya is delicious and used as table fruit. Green fruits are diuretic and mildly laxative and are very commonly used as vegetable in each section of society. Papain, prepared from dried latex of immature fruits, is a proteolytic enzyme similar in action to pepsin and is used for manufacture of drugs, meat tenderizing, manufacturing of chewing gum and in leather industry.

There is great demand of the quality seeds of the released varieties and hybrids from Public and private sector. Therefore, it is imperative to know the various hybrids available in the country with their important traits.

Varietal wealth: Status of hybrid papaya cultivation in India (varieties from public/private sector) is being elaborated hereunder under respective heads.

Public Sector Hybrids

Arka Surya

It is the offspring of Sunrise Solo x Pink Flesh Sweet from ICAR-IIHR, Bengaluru. It was selected from F14 generation and released as gynodioecious hybrid. The plants are shorter compared to Solo. Skin is smooth, becomes uniformly yellow in colour on ripening. Fruits are medium in size of about 600 – 800 g with a small fruit cavity. Pulp is about 3 – 3.5 cm thick, deep red in colour and sweet with a T.S.S. of 13.5 – 15°brix.It does not have the odd flavour. Keeping quality of fruits is good. Yield per plant is approximately 55 – 65 kg.

Arka Prabhat: It is a gynodioecious hybrid of papaya developed from IIHR Banglore with a cross of the Surya X Tainung 1 X Local Dwarf. Plant height at the time of flowering is 55 cm, fruit weight ranges 1.0 to 1.3 kg, TSS 13-14, pulp colour deep pink. The keeping quality of fruits 10-12 days. It is high yielder hybrids 90-100 kg/plant at IIHR Experimental Farm.

CO 3: It is a hybrid between CO 2 (Female parent) and sunrise solo (male parent). It is a gynodioecious type, released during 1983 as a table variety. The fruits are medium sized, yellow to orange fleshed with a TSS of 12 – 13o Brix. The average fruit weight is 0.5 to 0.8 kg with 90 – 120 fruit / plant / year. The fruits are pyriform in shape.

CO 4 : This is a hybrid of CO 1 and Washington. Fruit flesh is thick and yellow. The plant has attractive purple colouration in all the parts. It is a dioecious type. The mean fruit weight varies from 1.0 to 1.5 kg with a TSS of 12o Brix. The tree gives 80 to 90 fruits over a period of two years.

Sinta: It is a public sector gynodioecious hybrid of Institute of Plant Breeding, UPLB Philippines released in 1995. It is yellow flesh colour hybrid firm and solid with small cavity index. It is moderately tolerant to viral problems and excellent keeping quality. The fruit weight ranges from 0.8kg to 1.5kg with 13-15 brix of the TSS.

Private Sector Hybrids

Red lady (Taiwan 786): It is a gynodioecious hybrid of the Know you company groups belong to Taiwan. It is very popular hybrid in all over country due firmness and red flesh colour of the fruit. Fruit size in a range of 1.5-2.5kg with firm fruit. The TSS content ranged 13-16 0brix with optimum keeping quality.

Taiwan 786: cultivated for table and processing purposes. Yield potential 100-125 fruits in one year with average fruit weight of 1.25kg. Poor keeping quality of the fruit is major limitation.

Known-you no.1:

Tolerant to papaya ring spot virus. Plants are thick, sturdy, early and heavy yielding. Yellow-fleshed fruit is large, weighing about 1.6 - 3 kg. Sugar content is 12% and good taste.

Sunrise :

Fruits are small, pear shaped, red fleshed, very high sugar content and aromatic, high quality, weighing about 400 grams.

Tainung no. 1 :

Plants are vigorous and prolific. Fruits weigh about 1.1 kg, with red flesh and good aroma.

Tainung no. 2 :

Fruits with pointed blossom end weigh about 1.1 kg. Flesh is orange red, tender with good taste and quality. Suitable for local market.

Tainung No.3 :

Plants are dwarf but with good growth. Fruits are larger than TAINUNG NO.1 and weigh about 1.3 Kg. Flesh is yellow-orange, sweet and good quality.

Vinayak: It is a gynodioecious hybrid of the VNR seed company. Plants are semi dwarf stature and high yielder with potential to 50-65 kg/plant. Fruit weight in a range of 1.0-1.5kg.

About Author / Additional Info:
I am a Senior Scientist at ICAR-IARI, New Delhi.