The field of biotechnology has enabled scientists to examine the DNA molecule in depth and detail. DNA carries the information on which living organisms are built. Here are some of the ways through which DNA molecule can be analyzed.

DNA Isolation:-
DNA isolation is the process of extracting DNA in its pure form from a cell. The process starts with the separation of the DNA molecule from its other components like lipids, RNA and proteins. First a tube is taken in which some kind of solution is pour. This solution contains chemicals, enzymes and salts. When the specific cells are placed in the tube, these components degrade the cells except their DNA molecules. Enzymes are used to dissolve the proteins, chemicals to degrade RNA and salts to take the DNA out of the mixture. When all the cellular components are destroyed, no DNA molecule is isolated at the bottom by spinning in a centrifuge. After this extraction from the tube, DNA is placed in another solution where it can be studied more clearly. The isolated DNA contains thousands f genes on its surface which can be observed and studies easily.

Restriction Enzyme Digestion and Analysis:-
Restriction enzymes are made up of proteins. They are used to cut the DNa molecule into small and fine fragments. They allow the scientists to observe and analyze the DNA more properly and efficiently. The main purpose of restriction enzymes is to make new copies of DNA and analyze it. Agarose gel electrophoresis is the main techniques which makes use of the restriction enzymes. When the solution containing DNA molecules and restriction enzymes is placed in the gel an electric current is passed through it which cuts the DNA into fine small fragments. The fragments can be identified using fluorescent dyes.

DNA Transformation:-
DNA transformation is another technique used to insert foreign DNA in the host cell. Usually bacterial cell is used as a host cell in which foreign DNA is incorporated. When the bacterial cell divides, this foreign DNA also divides making multiple copies. This DNA can be used for various purposes either for the diagnosis of diseases in medicine or to make the plants genetically modified in agriculture.

Microarrays are the techniques of biotechnology which make possible the expression of many genes within seconds. Either a glass slide or silicon chip is used to make the microarrays so that the genes can easily be observed. The process starts with the isolation of the expressed genes from the cells and then it is seen that which genes from the cells are binding to the DNAs present on the chip or slide. Those specific genes are then isolated from the rest of the genes.

PCR or Polymerase Chain Reaction:-
PCR is a technique in which similar and multiple copies of DNA are produced through cloning. In this process, a DNA molecule is taken which acts as a template. Short sequences of DNA are required which act as primers. Enzymes used to make new DNA molecules. Nucleotides are also included in the process as they are the building blocks of DNA molecule and a machine which maintains the temperature of the whole process.

DNA Sequencing:-
DNA sequencing is the most important technique of biotech as well as human genome project as it allows the sequencing of DNA molecule and also determines the order of the bases in which they are present in the molecule. Through this knowledge, a scientist can easily determine that what kind of protein is encoded by the DNA. Other informative aspects can also be determined through this sequencing and it also shows the difference in genetic makeup of one organism from another organism.

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